Lithography Tools


Lithography forms the backbone of a typical semiconductor device fabrication run. It enables us to ‘draw’/ ‘write’ micrometre or nanometre sized patterns, thereby defining the device dimensions.

In optical lithography, we ‘write’ using an ultraviolet (UV) beam, and pattern sizes can be as small as a few micrometres. Even smaller, nanometre-sized patterns can be written via e-beam lithography which uses a beam of electrons to ‘write’. In both cases, ‘writing’ is done on special light-sensitive (or electron-sensitive) materials known as resists. These are chemically processed after exposure (to light/ electron beam) to reveal the written pattern. Precise control over instrument, beam, chemicals and time is necessary to make any lithographic process a success.

IITBNF has multiple optical lithography tools with different pattern dimension limits. We also have a laser writer system that is capable of producing mask plates with micrometre-sized patterns for use in the optical lithography tools. The best resolution at IITBNF (< 20 nm) is achieved through our state-of-the-art e-beam lithography tool: Raith 150 Two. This tool can also be used for in-situ silicon dioxide and metal deposition using its electron beam induced deposition (EBID) feature. For both optical & e-beam tools, resist spinners dedicated to different types of resists are available with capabilities to process 2”, 4” & 8” wafers. All lithography tools are housed in separate clean rooms with tight control over temperature, humidity & lighting conditions.

# Instrument Location Contamination category
1 Double Sided Aligner (DSA) Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
2 RaithEBL_Short Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
3 Karl Suss MJB3 Mask Aligner Applied Quantum Mechanics Lab 3(NanoE bldg, 5th floor) litho/analytical
4 Laser Writer Micro1 Yellow Room litho/analytical
5 Spinner 2 inch (SU8 PPR) Micro1 Yellow Room litho/analytical
6 Spinner 2 inch (General Purpose) Micro1 Yellow Room litho/analytical
7 Spinner 8 inch (General Purpose) Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
8 Spinner 2 inch (PPR) Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
9 Spinner 4 inch (PMMA) Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
10 Karl Suss MJB4 Mask Aligner Micro1 Yellow Room litho/analytical
11 Double Side Mask Aligner – Suss Microtech NMPF Lab litho/analytical
12 Spin Coater – Laurell Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
13 RaithEBL_Long Nano Litho Lab litho/analytical
To understand what the contamination categories mean, click here
To check if your process plan complies with contamination rules, click here
To view current working status of all the instruments, click here
Last updated on: 20-Jul-2022